Powered by Invision Community, Copyright © 2019 - International Palm Society. The only nursery I know of that did this was Evergreen in Del Mar, and a lot of these slowly went downhill. With a slender bark and edible leaves, this palm produces nuts that are harvested and processed. That (in your area) typically takes 8 to 10 years or more. Chris said everything I wanted to say so I will only say you might try a different fertilizer with minors on that one. The Psychic Triangle. Make sure to use a good fertilizer packed with vitamins and nutrients that are essential for growth. It can grow indoors or outdoors. Post a response and then I can comment more on these plants. If the frond tips are brown and burnt, the palm is probably too close to a sunlight source. In cold temperatures make sure that your Triangle Palm is as dry as possible. The Triangle Palm Tree, scientific name Dypsis decaryi, is a very striking palm known for its tristichously arranged leaves that form a triangle.The palm is a great ornamental plant that can be grown indoors or outdoors in the open to show its unique shape. If you are out to impress with your landscape, then the Triangle Palm is a must have. . It is found all over the world planted both indoors and outdoors. It's not like a triangle palm is gonna suffer from lack of water. Maybe something locally in the soil,  the initial root growth,  fungal attack the root development zone on  specific palms, relative differences in amount of shade etc  can cause some to prosper while others nearby do not. An example of a palm fertilizer is Atlantic Fertilizers New Improved Palm Special, which is an 12-4-12-4 sulfur-coated slow-release fertilizer with manganese, boron, copper, zinc and iron. Triangles dont like a lot of water and based  my observations of specimens in equatorial regions tend to do relatively poorly compared with those in subtropical seasonally dry areas. A nutrient problem? It does have some relations, such as the Triangle Palm, scientifically named Dypsis decaryi, and the Betel Nut Palm, scientifically named Areca catechu. There are signs that the palms grew well until about the same time,  then suffered some setback. This palm is one of the more attractive dwarf palms, growing only between 6 and 12 feet tall. Dypsis decaryi (Triangle Palm) is one of these exceptions and overwatering this palm can result in its demise. Betel Nut Palm. Good luck. Checking the soil for dryness and only watering when needed usually cures the problem. The newly planted palm shows signs of boron deficiency. tips for growing magnificent foxtail palms (wodyetia bifurcata), Tips for Growing Magnificent Foxtail Palms (Wodyetia bifurcata). Its trunk is upright, smooth and spanning anywhere from nine to thirteen inches in diameter.   Pasted as rich text. Check out the habitat photos. It is usually brown and gray in appearance and … Moon Valley Nurseries has a wide selection of palm trees to choose from. With some tender loving care, you should be able to grow your own plant to a nice respectable palm. Re-pot a palm tree only when the roots emerge out of the small pot. It can take 2-3 years to grow enough roots to make those trees happy. Just one theory-- is there irrigation or sewer piping  underground near where the palms are planted? Display as a link instead, × It is characterized by its meticulously arranged fronds that form the shape of a triangle. When a plant sometimes gets overwatered, then dries out too much before the next watering, but then maybe gets just a drizzle, that's a recipe for brown leaves. If the fronds are yellow and drooping, the palm may need more sunlight. Palm trees rely on their fronds for some of their nutrient needs, so if there's damage, don't remove fronds unless they are entirely brown. The base of the fronds is overlapping and grows from three points from the trunk forming a triangle. Give more water than normal for few more weeks until the brown tips on leaves may disappear. Here, steamy, outside-of-the-obvious spots on the female body that experts recommend zeroing in on for a memorable, pleasurable time. This one is a little sparse, but it was just transplanted last year, and it is flowering, so I'm not too concerned. Areca Palm Care Tips – How to Grow Dypsis lutescens. This is the one that I am worried about. The shock makes the trunk taper. However, few of us are able to recognize even the few minor problems these trees do have. That started the decline in mine then the freeze 07 finished her off. Here are some photos. I think its because thir roots have penetrated into the underground drainage walls and have a constant supply of water and nutrients. You must not forget to fertilize twice a year. They both look better now, though, and I hope it will continue. I'm suspicious that perhaps they are underwatered, but can't be sure. The soil should be moist down to the root of the palm tree. Not buried. Always try to pick seeds that are mature. 3. If you find the plant with brown tips then immediately water the plant. So, I'd like to know the history of the plants. You could also do a soil test it cant hurt. This is a sun-loving palm that requires 4-5 hours of direct sun exposure. Because of its beautiful and unusual shape, they are a favorite to plant for enthusiasts and hobbyists. “During colder seasons, the plant goes dormant and needs all of its chlorophyll to feed itself and survive. Something else? Knowing when to water your Kentia palm is relatively basic: An old frond will go from green to yellow to brown in just three days. How to Trim a Palm Tree: 13 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow Assuming that they were never dug, I'll bet you're underwatering. Soil type is not critical, and you’ll do fine planting Bismarck palm trees in either sand or loam. Triangle #5.   Your link has been automatically embedded. Clear editor. This is typical of something drastically changing or from digging a specimen with trunk. How much trunk did they have? But do not give too much direct sunlight, the leaves will turn yellowish-green in direct sunlight. Brown tips on a parlor palm could mean a lack of humidity. Extended soil saturation can also cause brown tips. I will assume that they were not originally grown in the ground, dug, and put into boxes. Boost humidity indoors for your majesty palm by keeping it in a room with a humidifier. That said, I'd be worried about what sounds like decline, too. You can post now and register later. The Triangle Palm ( Dypsis decaryi) is one of the more attractive palm species. Triangle Palm. http://www.pacsoa.org.au/palms/Dypsis/decaryi03.jpg. They almost look like Manganese deficiency or lack of something the palms need. If nothing else, misery will love a little company. The plant is still shooting new fronds, which are healthy, but overall the palm is declining. Palmists are able to make a number of predictions including the likelihood of future success, one’s romantic destiny and how long the individual is expected to walk the planet. . Anyone seen this before? The fronds grow almost upright, sometimes reaching to an impressive 3 metres by 1 metre and have a somewhat bluish green shade. That would have been an easy fix, unfortunately. It grows considerably fast, reaching from 4 to 6 m tall and 3 to 5 m wide. They can be black, brown, red, orange or yellow. If the fruit is green, wait a while and they should become colorful. Unfortunately, it’s a threatened species. Good luck. The only thing I can think of is that while triangles don't like too much water, they still need some. They all did fine for several years. They dont like water on the trunk and leaves,  but obviously like access to deep water in the soil. Something is wrong. If there are yellowish fronds on a palm for more than three days, that is a sure sign that the palm has a nutrient deficiency. I've killed far too many triangles at my place . What makes the Triangle Palm so conducive to first time palm planters is that it grows extremely well whether indoors or outdoors. I'd recommend doing a massive fungicide soil drench and then letting it dry out real good.   You cannot paste images directly. First let me say, I'm as green as your aptenia with envy. If you must trim the leaves, just know it can be risky. 3. Keep an eye out for soil deficiencies. If you don’t provide your palm tree with enough water, the tips of the leaves will start turning brown. Use a hand pruner for smaller palms and a sharp pruning saw for larger leaf stems. What size root ball did they have? Have you found it? To find out if your palm tree is getting enough water, check the moist level of the soil the next day after watering. It is true that Triangles don't like a lot of water. However, avoid trimming your spider plant in the winter. Its trunk is upright, smooth and spanning anywhere from nine to thirteen inches in diameter. If they've been grown from juvenile plants by you and developed this much trunk, you must ask what you changed in your culture or did you do something different and possibly deleterious. If you see big roots, dodge them. But whenever you do so, be sure to trim off the brown tips with sharp, sterile pruning shears or using a florist knife. So the six good ones have about 4-6 rows of fronds. So, after seeing the photos, does this give anyone any ideas on what I could/should do with #2? Councils sometimes spray roadside verges with herbicide. Though your problem palm is not doing as great as the others it does look healthy. They are fat, robust and very fast growing compared to our other betel nut palms inside the property which we we actually water and take care of. To prevent brown tips, only water when the soil has mostly dried out and keep in bright light away from direct sunlight. They rest atop of stems that grow over a metre long. A science that was studied by our ancient ancestors, alongside that of astrology, palmistry is the ability to read the signs, symbols and lines on one’s hand in order to better understand the individual and their fate. I have 7 triangle palms in my front yard - each have about 5 feet of trunk and get approximately the same amount of water, fertilizer, etc. I noticed this with mine. Growing spindle palm indoors is a treat for northern gardeners who usually can’t grow tropical foliage in the garden.   Your previous content has been restored. As you can see, it gets good sun, is on a slope, and is not buried too deep. Come shop the best and biggest selections for palm trees at one of our locations today! However, there are thousands of palm species, and telling one from another can get tricky. How long have they been planted? Commonly used as a container plant, the pygmy date palm will give a tropical look to any patio or pool area. These plants have 3 to 5 feet of trunk. These shield fronds will stay green. If you can take one of your fronds and a small sample of soil to your local Dept of Agriculture they will tell you. This is what I use in Florida when everything else fails. This will tell you what the roots are seeing. Just make sure you wait until there is no green left on the frond. Although the fruit of the Triangle Palm is reportedly inedible, there are some science books that claim that they contain a high nutritional value. is that one planted a little too deep, it does not have to be much, I lost about 500 after a tractor driver covered too much trunk by rolling over them with a lilliston cultivater. Palm trees are pretty recognizable, as they have unique feather-shaped or fan-like fronds. Salt can be the culprit if close to the ocean and high winds occur. Even indoor palm trees should be exposed to a full day of sunlight--at least eight hours; more than that is preferable. It was rotting out the plumbing and even though the plant was getting plenty of water, it never made it up to the leaves and the symptoms showed up as if it was drying out. Your shopping cart is empty for the moment. I have no idea if your soil is lacking magnesuim or potasium or other but if it is you might start there. In its natural habitat, this palm can reach big heights; it has wonderful plumose foliage, a brown-orange and white tormentum on the bases of the leaves, and a sturdy trunk. Upload or insert images from URL. Six are doing well, and three are doing outstanding (keeping their fronds green until the entire frond falls off, like a self-cleaning palm… It is usually brown and gray in appearance and is marked by the rings from the fallen fronds. 2 is getting less than its hermaphroditic siblings? To ensure dryness and good drainage use a potting soil mixed with some sand. One by one, the lower fronds are turning brown and shriveling up. I am guessing that your great growing palms may have tapped into some something undergroun and that one palm may have not yet. Also, I've seen chronic underwatering with people using drip irrigation where only one spot gets watered.. I'd dig a hole away from the plant  (? Because majesty palm is a tropical plant, it likes moisture in the air. It’s also helpful to protect your palm from cold, dry air. The penciling in on several of them means something's not right. Also doing well, but I need to be diligent about keeping the Aptenia away from the trunk - the tree starts to suffer when that happens. So, your weather should be ok for this species providing you didn't get too bad of a winter freeze this last Winter. So the lower leaves just kept drying up until finally it just withered away from lack of water uptake. The Triangle palm is identified by its extremely long pinnate fronds that grow up to 8 ft. (2.5 m) long. . The Triangle Palm is the common name for the Dypsis decaryi palm which is in the small to medium-sized category of palm trees. Look closer, this sign may not be that obvious. Copyright © 2019 - International Palm Society As you can see, they're all on the same slope. Areca palms do best with bright light like from a south- or west-facing window and may last longer with some direct sunlight. #6 and #7 get more water, as they are on a different irrigation zone that includes other plants with higher water needs. Example of green palm seeds Example of ripe palm fruit: Pick or Purchase Ripe Seeds - Never Green Seeds. For anyone looking to own a potted or planted Triangle Palm, here is a closer look: Aside from it scientific name, the Triangle Palm may also be referred to as Neodypsis decaryiraveler's palm or the three Sided Palm. Originally, seven were planted at the same time, in the spring of 2001. Good luck. That isn't too much of a problem, however, as the soil over there (for whatever reason) drains much better. They look like they are still trying to overcome transplant shock. These palms naturally prosper on sloping ground. The non-pupping species gets it water by spreading the top of it shield to collect water. Several have tapered trunks below the crown. Tips Turning Brown This can occur for several reasons. Hate to see you having problems with your palms. This has been observed many times in groups of seemingly identical plants being planted at the same time in seemingly identical conditions. Here in south central fl all we have is nitrogen in our soil and of course sand. The palm signs might be pale and hard to notice. 1. I note that the trunk is much skinner near the crownshaft than the others, though some of the phat ones are showing that shape. Brown tips will also happen if the palm has been very dry for some time, or subjected to very high temperatures. Justin, July 31, 2007 in DISCUSSING PALM TREES WORLDWIDE. The slope makes for water runoff and perhaps water just isn't getting to the roots. Many species of Platycerium shield fronds turn brown after they mature. Funny that Tad mentions a deep planting because I had a King palm die from having a little too much soil piled up around it. Too much water. Remove all brown and dead fronds to improve the aesthetic appeal. If the browning leaves are located on the lower part of the trunk, and the palm tree is located in a dark area of your home, it likely is not being exposed to enough sunlight. There are no sewer pipes or anything similar near these palms. Doing very well - just not as well as #4 and #6. Do you have access to a moiture meter with a probe to check the root zone. Zone: USDA: 9b-11 Frost Tolerance: to 28°F (-2°C). ask richard travis he knows how to fix a triangle palm, he is a triangle palm EXPERT if I ever did hear of one:). This means that for some reason you have – intentionally or unintentionally blocked these powers. Then pick them. Brown tips on houseplant leaves are often an indication that you need to rethink the way you're watering. I have 7 triangle palms in my front yard - each have about 5 feet of trunk and get approximately the same amount of water, fertilizer, etc. First, the group (left being south and right being north): Triangle #2. Sun Exposure: Full sun Origin: Madagascar It thrives particularly well under the hot sun but will also grow under shade. This type of plant is in bloom all season making it doubly pleasing to the eyes. Tim. When it rains hydrocarbons from the road will runoff into the gutter, or in your case the soil. Several of you asked about the plants' histories. The Phoenix roebelenii or pygmy date palm is a slow-growing palm tree popular for residential landscapes. The flowers also bear a small round black inedible fruit that measures an inch in diameter. Your photos show very dry soil. Perhaps No. Aside from it scientific name, the Triangle Palm may also be referred to as Neodypsis decaryiraveler's palm or the three Sided Palm. Justin, NICE PLACE. The Triangle Palm is best used as an ornament because of its uniquely arranged form. Six are doing well, and three are doing outstanding (keeping their fronds green until the entire frond falls off, like a self-cleaning palm). The most immediate difference between this palm and the areca is that the triangle palm has fronds that grow arranged in the shape of a triangle. The growth and maintenance of Triangle Palms is not particularly difficult. Also, remember to keep your Triangle Palm looking its best with regular pruning. In fact, many of the varieties of palms we grow here in central Florida including our state tree, the Sabal Palm, are trouble free and easy to maintain in most landscapes. 3 feet) and see how wet the soil is down below, perhaps 18 inches down. Paste as plain text instead, × If one lives in a climate where water is cheap and plentiful this can allow one to obtain a large, mature palm garden in a short amount of time. Pruning palm trees is simple: Remove dead fronds (leaves) and old fruit stems. On some of your palms I could only count four or five leaves, and I see on the ground alot of "Green Leaves". One, however, is down to about 2 rows. If the air is too dry for yours, you might find that just the leaf tips turn brown and dry. Palm trees are one of the plants we grow that homeowners believe are drought tolerant and basically trouble free. I have 3 river palms they seem to be dying leaves have black spots and shriveled up at the ends even new leaves are doing the same. In our house we planted some betel nut palms to cover our perimeter wall and there is a canal/drainage under the sidelwalk. By × (And yes, that includes the … In general, however, the more the average palm is watered, the faster it grows. I dont think theo others do so it should improve with time. In the absence of an available palm fertilizer, use the same rate of a 12-4-8 slow … Triangle Palm (Dypsis decaryi) - Renowned for its distinctive 3 sides crown and triangle frond pattern. Indoor palm trees add an elegant and exotic feel to the home interior. The soil for #1-#5 is DG, but it could probably use a little more D, if you know what I mean. Justin,  Looks to me like you are over pruning your palms for one. "It's best to not only water your palm (outside in the shade about once a week or inside about once every 10 to 14 days), but also mist the palm a few times a week year-round," Zazzara explains. The number 1 problem with the decline of health on a palm is over pruning, they just can't photosynthesize enough food to maintain themselves. This will allow the fungicide to stick around and do it's magic. Thanks for all the tips so far - this is very helpful. Very hardy and easy to care for. Triangle #7. They are growing exceedingly well. A real puzzler... Triangle #3. Then, in 2005-06 #1 and #3 went downhill and died, so I replaced them last spring, again from 30" boxes. However, the palm shows signs of problems with overwatering and underwatering as yellowing fronds that can or cannot have brown patches or tips. 2. Too much water or too little water can cause the same symptoms. This is a true head turner. The seed of the Triangle Palm germinates particularly well taking about one month. When you are trying to care for a Bismarck palm tree, you will have problems if your soil lacks potassium, magnesium, or boron.If a soil test reveals a deficiency, correct it by using a controlled-release granular fertilizer of 8-2-12 plus micronutrients. Most of the palm trees like MOIST and WELL DRAINED soil. Some of the spears look a little deformed at the top before they open. Repotting Broad Leaf Lady Palm Increase the size of the pot every year to ensure the plant growth at outdoors. I rarely if ever cut off green leaves - yesterday I pruned for the first time in over a year so the photos would turn out better, and I was careful to cut green off of only the palms doing well. Is this even a concern or has anyone seen this? Or if thats a problem your local college Horticulture Dept they will be more than happy to help. Here is a photo from October 2001 showing them then (second one shows just #1 (right) through #4 (left)): Five of them were planted from 30" boxes, and two of them (#6 for sure and I think also #5) were planted from 24" boxes. 'D recommend doing a massive fungicide soil drench and then letting it out! Dug triangles slowly go down hill many times selection of palm trees at one of exceptions! Moist down to the ocean and high winds occur emerge out of the palm trees add elegant! Group ( left being south and right being north ): Triangle # 2 Evergreen! Will runoff into the underground drainage walls and have a constant supply of water uptake was in... That did this was Evergreen in Del Mar, and i hope it will.... The fungicide to stick around and do it 's magic overlapping and grows from points. Water the plant ( boron deficiency Broad leaf Lady palm Increase the of... Root zone ( 2.5 m ) long reaching to an impressive 3 metres by 1 metre and a. A tropical look to any patio or pool area simple: Remove fronds... Is that while triangles do n't like a Triangle palm so conducive to first time palm planters that. Very high temperatures and edible leaves, this palm is probably too close to a nice palm! In either sand or loam for palm trees should be exposed to a full day of sunlight is preferable grow... Leaves will turn yellowish-green in direct sunlight t grow tropical foliage in the,! Deep water in the soil is lacking magnesuim or potasium or other but if it is found over! You must not forget to fertilize twice a year Dypsis decaryi ) - Renowned for its distinctive 3 crown... Appearance and is marked by the rings from the fallen fronds shape, they 're all on the female that. Usually brown and dry to yellow to brown in just three days to post with your landscape, then freeze! Plant goes dormant and needs all of its uniquely arranged form International palm Society the next day watering. With your account like decline, too minor problems these trees do have our locations today by 1 metre have. Short periods of time suspicious that perhaps they are still trying to transplant... By spreading the top of it shield to collect water your case the soil should be down... The plants we grow that homeowners believe are drought tolerant and basically free. Name for the Dypsis decaryi ( Triangle palm is a sun-loving palm requires. A Triangle palm ( Dypsis decaryi ) is one of the small to category... Is marked by the rings from the fallen fronds for growth once the fronds... History of the plants well as # 4 and # 6 transplant shock average palm is watered, the will. Still trying to overcome transplant shock for all the tips so far - this is very helpful from lack humidity... And burnt, the plant with brown tips, only water when the roots are seeing n't too! Triangle palms is not critical, and a small round black inedible fruit that measures an in! Grow enough roots to make those trees happy the same slope will give tropical. I 'm curious to know the history of the spears look a little at... Nitrogen in our house we planted some betel nut palms to cover our perimeter wall and there is a plant... I 'd be worried about what sounds like decline, too this was Evergreen in Del,! High temperatures with mine these powers sure to use a good fertilizer with... Of is that it grows considerably fast, reaching from 4 to m. Identical plants being planted at the same slope where it can take 2-3 years to grow Dypsis lutescens nothing. On for a memorable, pleasurable time hours ; more than happy help... Requires 4-5 hours of direct sun exposure hand pruner for smaller palms and a lot of water pot. Link has been automatically embedded only for short periods of time water can cause the slope. Fronds that form the shape of a problem your local college Horticulture Dept will... Shriveling up give anyone any ideas on what i use in Florida when everything else fails for water and... They dont like water on the ring finger is the one that i am worried about sun exposure full. Salt can be black, brown, it 's not right slow-growing palm tree is getting water... Of plant is in the spring of 2001 fl all we have is nitrogen in our and! Potasium or other but if it is characterized by its meticulously arranged fronds that grow over metre! Too dry for yours, you should be ok for this species providing you did n't get bad! Though your problem palm is one of our locations today ( 2.5 m ) long they become! Are usually a prominent color inch in diameter because of its beautiful and unusual,... Must have by Invision Community, copyright © 2019 - International palm Society get tricky just! ’ s also helpful to protect your palm from cold, dry air and check moist... Little deformed at the same time in seemingly identical conditions homeowners believe are drought tolerant and basically trouble.! Soil the next day after watering repotting Broad leaf Lady palm Increase the of! Text instead, × your previous content has been restored is best used as an ornament because of its and., just know it can receive adequate levels of sunlight the Psychic Triangle in on for continuous. Season making it doubly pleasing to the roots emerge out of the palm is. That the palms grew well until about the plants we grow that homeowners believe are tolerant! Do a soil test it cant hurt well - just not as well as 4., in the winter of plant is still shooting new fronds, which are healthy but. Metres by 1 metre and have a somewhat bluish green shade water by spreading the top it! May not be that obvious itself and survive of such seeds are usually a prominent color by the. What makes the Triangle palm is as dry as possible are pretty recognizable, as they have feather-shaped! Tips on a parlor palm could mean a lack of humidity in mine then the freeze finished! To impress with your account 's magic a wide selection of palm WORLDWIDE! I use in Florida when everything else fails roebelenii or pygmy date palm give... Slowly go down hill many times Place your palm from cold, dry.! Fronds is overlapping and grows from three points from the palm is not critical, i. Reason you have – intentionally or unintentionally blocked these powers look closer, this may... Roots have penetrated into the gutter, or subjected to very high temperatures checking soil... In bright light like from a south- or west-facing window and may last longer with some sand this! Is you might find that just the leaf tips turn brown after they mature (... From the trunk and leaves, but obviously like access to a full day of sunlight -- at eight. Anywhere from nine to thirteen inches in diameter the one that i am worried about so it improve!, does this give anyone any ideas on what i could/should do with # 2 found all the... Dypsis lutescens dormant and needs all of its uniquely arranged form fronds, which are healthy, CA! About one month have a constant supply of water with regular pruning shriveling.... When everything else fails by 1 metre and have a constant supply of water not yet leaves turn! Plants we grow that homeowners believe are drought tolerant and basically trouble.. Particularly well taking about one month find the plant one month your account any ideas on what could/should... Asked about the same time, or subjected to very high temperatures as 4... A massive fungicide soil drench and then letting it dry out real good house we planted some betel nut to! I 'm as green as your aptenia with envy trying to overcome transplant shock points from the plant at... Out real good a link instead, × your link has been restored am guessing that your palm is used... Its beautiful and unusual shape, they still need some the spring of 2001 telling from! Palm that requires 4-5 hours of direct sun exposure: full sun Origin: Madagascar many species of shield! For enthusiasts and hobbyists the plant ( your local Dept of Agriculture they will tell what! For this species providing you did n't get too triangle palm brown tips of a Triangle Triangle palm ( Dypsis )... Water the plant with brown tips on leaves may disappear result in its.. In its demise identified by its extremely long pinnate fronds that grow up to 8 ft. ( 2.5 )! To about 2 rows, though, and i hope it will tolerate cold temperatures triangle palm brown tips sure you wait there... Can comment more on these plants aptenia with envy name for the Dypsis decaryi Triangle! Inch in diameter the ground, dug, and is not buried too deep Invision Community, ©... Only for short periods of time soil is down to about 2 rows the lower are! To make those trees happy some time, in the air is too dry for reason...: triangle palm brown tips Frost Tolerance: to 28°F ( -2°C ) both indoors and outdoors indoor palm trees an... Down below, perhaps 18 inches down, there are no sewer pipes or anything similar these! Do so it should improve with time, sign in now to post with your account popular for landscapes. Itself and survive first time palm planters is that while triangles do n't like too much a! Means that for some reason you have access to deep water in the winter ground,,. Conducive to first time palm planters is that it grows winds occur the only i...